Actively introducing physical culture and sport into the everyday life of our family, we increase the level of physical fitness and thereby contribute to the development of basic physical qualities – strength, speed, endurance, as well as flexibility and agility.
The most favorable period for the education of speed, flexibility and agility – children and adolescents (up to 12-13 years). It is advisable to develop strength and endurance at the age of 14-16 years, although it is necessary to begin work on educating these qualities much earlier. Having a complex effect on the body, any physical exercise develops several physical qualities at once, therefore, when selecting exercises, it is important to determine their preferential focus on the education of this quality.
Strength is the ability of a person to overcome external resistance or to counteract it through muscular tensions. The manifestation of strength depends on a number of factors: the diameter of the muscle (its mass), neuro-coordination relations, the degree of mastery of the technique of movement, and volitional qualities.
For the development of power using the method of re-lifting weights, as well as the method of dynamic efforts during jump and throwing movements. Calm and volumetric exercises are recommended. They lead to the growth of muscle tissue and improve metabolism. Strength training is advisable to include at the end of the main part of the class.
Very useful for male family members exercise with dumbbells. Dumbbells with optimal weight are those that can be raised without apparent tension 8-10 times. It should start with dumbbells, the mass of which is 50% of the optimum. During training, the mass of dumbbells can be increased up to 80% of the optimum, so that they can be raised 4-6 times.
Sample exercises for developing strength:
- flexion and extension of the arms in the support (standing, lying);
- squats on one, two legs;
- pulling up;
- tilts back with a turn of the body to the right and to the left while sitting, legs fixed, hands behind the head (or along the body). The same with dumbbells;
- lying on his back, raising straight legs perpendicular to the body;
- emphasis sitting, raising and lowering one ^ or two straight legs, alternating movements of the legs up and down (“scissors”).
- flexion and extension of the arms with dumbbells, circles in and out with hands, jumps (in place and with advancement), squats on one and two legs. Exercise is performed with dumbbells;
- from different starting positions, stretching of the expander or rubber shock absorber;
- swimming (20-50 m);
- sports and outdoor games.
Speed – a complex of functional properties of a person, determining the speed characteristics of movements. The upbringing of this physical quality depends largely on the state of the central nervous system. The most successful speed qualities develop in childhood and adolescence. Speed loads are very active in the cardiovascular system, so their use in middle and especially old age is limited. Exercises for the development of speed, as a rule, are performed in series and are included in the beginning of the main part of the lesson. The intervals between repetitions should ensure the restoration of efficiency and depend on the individual characteristics of the students.
Sample exercises for the development of speed:
- running in an emphasis while standing with a maximum speed (20-30 s);
- seed run (8-12 m);
- imitation of hand movements as when running at maximum speed (20-30 s);
- run with acceleration of 10-15 m (3-6 times);
- speed skating, 15–20 m (4–6 times);
- re-sailing a segment of 10-20 m;
- repeated skiing of 100-200 m;
- sports, outdoor games.
Endurance is the ability of the body to resist fatigue, that is, to work for a long time without getting tired.
Children, adolescents and young men are not capable of performing long-term work, as it requires significant energy expenditures, which at this time go to ensure the growth of the body. Especially over the development of endurance begin to work after 16 years, and until that age the amount of applied methods is small. If the exercises are complex, then endurance training includes exercises at the end of the main part of the workout.
Sample exercises for the development of endurance:
- walking at an average pace;
- long walking and running at a slow pace;
- cross-country run at an alternating pace (300-1000 m);
- skiing at a slow, medium and variable pace (depending on age);
- rowing, skating, cycling;
- sport games.
Flexibility is the ability to perform motion with a large amplitude. Exercises for the education of flexibility are selected depending on the level of preparedness involved. Flexibility develop systematically, using a small amount of exercise, often repeating them. Exercises for nurturing flexibility are performed daily, including them in morning exercises.
Sample exercises for developing flexibility:
- from a standing position (sitting) bending forward, legs do not bend. The same with the burden;
- in different positions of lunge (forward, backward, sideways) stretching in the knee and hip joints. The same with the burden;
- from the prone position to make a “bridge”;
- standing with your back to the wall (one step away from it), bending back, leaning your hands against the wall, come to the “bridge” position.
- swinging movements of the legs (forward, backward, sideways) with a maximum amplitude;
- sitting on his heels, bend back, trying to touch the floor with his head.
Dexterity is a person’s ability to quickly perform precise movements and motor actions. Exercises for the development of agility are selected such in which speed is combined with the accuracy of movements.
Sample exercises for developing agility:
- juggling with tennis balls;
- all sorts of flip-flops (back and forth in grouping, sideways);
- jumping rope (on one, two legs, with arms crossed in front);
- outdoor games;
- sports games (volleyball, basketball, football, table tennis).